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These have been artificially drained and continue to be protected from floods by drainage banks and pumps. With the support of this drainage system, the Fenland has become a major arable agricultural region in Britain for grains and vegetables.
The Fens are particularly fertile, containing around half of the grade 1 agricultural land in England. The Fens have been referred to as the "Holy Land of the English" because of the former monasteries, now churches and cathedrals , of Crowland , Ely , Peterborough , Ramsey and Thorney.
As a result of drainage and the subsequent shrinkage of the peat fens, many parts of the Fens now lie below mean sea level. Although one writer in the 17th century described the Fenland as entirely above sea level in contrast to the Netherlands ,  the area now includes the lowest land in the United Kingdom.
Holme Fen in Cambridgeshire, is around 2. Without artificial drainage and flood protection, the Fens would be liable to periodic flooding, particularly in winter due to the heavy load of water flowing down from the uplands and overflowing the rivers.
Some areas of the Fens were once permanently flooded, creating small lakes or meres , while others were flooded only during periods of high water.
In the pre-modern period, arable farming was limited to the higher areas of the surrounding uplands, the fen islands, and the so-called "Townlands", an arch of silt ground around the Wash , where the towns had their arable fields.
Though these lands were lower than the peat fens before the peat shrinkage began, the more stable silt soils were reclaimed by medieval farmers and embanked against any floods coming down from the peat areas or from the sea.
The rest of the Fenland was dedicated to pastoral farming , fishing, fowling , and the harvesting of reeds or sedge for thatch. In this way, the medieval and early modern Fens stood in contrast to the rest of southern England, which was primarily an arable agricultural region.
Since the advent of modern drainage in the 19th and 20th centuries, the Fens have been radically transformed. Today arable farming has almost entirely replaced pastoral.
The economy of the Fens is heavily invested in the production of crops such as grains, vegetables, and some cash crops such as rapeseed and canola.
Drainage in the Fenland consists of both river drainage and internal drainage of the land between the rivers.
The internal drainage was organised by levels or districts, each of which includes the fen parts of one or several parishes.
The details of the organisation vary with the history of their development, but the areas include:.
The above were all redrained at one time or another after the Civil War These were drained in the 18th and 19th centuries. At the end of the most recent glacial period , known in Britain as the Devensian , ten thousand years ago, Britain and continental Europe were joined by the ridge between Friesland and Norfolk.
The topography of the bed of the North Sea indicates that the rivers of the southern part of eastern England flowed into the Rhine , thence through the English Channel.
From the Fens northward along the modern coast, the drainage flowed into the northern North Sea basin. As the ice melted, the rising sea level drowned the lower lands, leading ultimately to the present coastline.
These rising sea levels flooded the previously inland woodland of the Fenland basin; over the next few thousand years both saltwater and freshwater wetlands developed as a result.
Silt and clay soils were deposited by marine floods in the saltwater areas and along the beds of tidal rivers, while organic soils, or peats, developed in the freshwater marshes.
Fenland water levels peaked in the Iron Age; earlier Bronze and Neolithic settlements were covered by peat deposits, and have only recently been found after periods of extensive droughts revealed them.
Settlements developed on the new silt soils deposited near the coast. Though water levels rose once again in the early medieval period, by this time artificial banks protected the coastal settlements and the interior from further deposits of marine silts.
Peats continued to develop in the freshwater wetlands of the interior fens. In general, of the three principal soil types found in the Fenland today, the mineral-based silt resulted from the energetic marine environment of the creeks, the clay was deposited in tidal mud-flats and salt-marsh, while the peat grew in the fen and bog.
The peat produces black soils, which are directly comparable to the American muck soils. A roddon , the dried raised bed of a watercourse, is more suitable for building than the less stable peat.
Since the 19th century, all of the acid peat in the Fens has disappeared. Drying and wastage of peats has greatly reduced the depth of the alkaline peat soils and reduced the overall elevation of large areas of the peat fens.
There is evidence of human settlement near the Fens from the Mesolithic on. The Romans constructed the Fen Causeway , a road across the Fens to link what later became East Anglia with what later became central England; it runs between Denver and Peterborough.
They also linked Cambridge and Ely. Generally, their road system avoided the Fens, except for minor roads designed for exporting the products of the region, especially salt, beef and leather.
Sheep were probably raised on the higher ground of the Townlands and fen islands, then as in the early 19th century.
There may have been some drainage efforts during the Roman period, including the Car Dyke along the western edge of the Fenland between Peterborough and Lincolnshire, but most canals were constructed for transportation.
How far seaward the Roman settlement extended is unclear owing to the deposits laid down above them during later floods. The early post-Roman settlements were made on the Townlands.
It is clear that there was some prosperity there, particularly where rivers permitted access to the upland beyond the fen. Such places were Wisbech , Spalding , Swineshead and Boston.
All the Townlands parishes were laid out as elongated strips, to provide access to the products of fen, marsh and sea. On the fen edge, parishes are similarly elongated to provide access to both upland and fen.
The townships are therefore often nearer to each other than they are to the distant farms in their own parishes. After the end of Roman Britain, there is a break in written records.
It is thought that some Iceni may have moved west into the Fens to avoid the Angles , who were migrating across the North Sea from Angeln modern Schleswig and settling what would become East Anglia.
Surrounded by water and marshes, the Fens provided a safe area that was easily defended and not particularly desirable to invading Anglo-Saxons.
She is currently a freelance editor working for trade publishing companies and helping authors develop their manuscripts for publication. I have worked in publishing since My job is to make your manuscript the best manuscript it can be.
I have empathy and imagination, and will work with you to help you take your manuscript where you want it to go — whether that is to a small group of people, or the world.
This has ranged from simple fact checks and light edits to entire restructures. I can project manage an entire publishing project from start to finish or simply tidy up and polish copy.
My journalism has been published in several outlets including The Saturday Paper and SBS and my short fiction has been published in Meanjin.
I also do some copywriting, mostly for not-for-profits. Her clients range from multinational trade publishers to digital-first startups.
An advocate for quality digital publishing, Sarah is a well-regarded speaker and industry trainer. She was previously known as Sarah Hazelton. General non-fiction, especially popular science and law for non-specialists.
Digital publishing in theory and practice. Presentations and industry training. Scott began his career in the late s as an editor at HarperCollins UK then became a senior editor at Larousse.
On moving to Australia he worked at HarperCollins and Weldon Owen before setting up a publishing services business. Scott was also a course convenor on the Macquarie University Postgraduate Diploma in Editing and Publishing, and has written and contributed to a wide range of non-fiction books.
Simone has been working in the publishing industry for more than twenty-five years. She also loves helping private clients develop their writing for submission or self-publication.
In addition to her work in trade publishing, Simone has extensive experience in academic, corporate and website editing. She is currently Publications Manager at Australian Poetry, and has a strong love of poetry, fiction and literary non-fiction in all its forms.
Having worked across all aspects of print production, Jessica is able to shepherd a publication through its entire life cycle, from concept and design through to printing and distribution.
She is available for copywriting and basic typesetting where it complements required editorial work. Kate has been working on trade books since She has also worked full-time as an in-house editor at Black Inc.
In and she mentored authors at Varuna. She has also edited for cultural organisations such as Sydney Living Museums.
Elena enjoys editing and developing manuscripts in a wide variety of genres. As a published poet, she is also available to work with poetry manuscripts.
She enjoys working with first-time and experienced writers. Before working in-house as an editor with Scribe for four years, she was the online editor for Island magazine, special editor for the Review of Australian Fiction , and bookseller for Fullers Bookshop.
A published writer, Lesley is extremely passionate about the art of writing and reading and has a particular love of finding and developing great narratives, both in fiction and nonfiction and across a broad range of genres.
Nonfiction — memoir, science, history, art, food, and humour. Lesley also loves working with graphic novels, comics, zines, poetry, journals, and illustrated works.
Or napkin scribbles. Denise specialises in technical, business, government and academic editing. She also has expertise in compiling and analysing data, statistics and research.
Claire is a qualified accredited editor. Claire has a good working knowledge of both Australian and British style and can edit accordingly. She has a special interest in plain English and document accessibility.
Her freelance business includes an audio transcription service for authors. Vanessa has been an editor since Portia has worked for the Manuscript Appraisal Agency and manages submissions for Seizure, as well as working as a reviewer and industry insider in bookshops and NSWWC for many years.
Before life as a freelancer, Martine worked in-house for Hinkler Books as its managing editor. She spent several years as senior editor of pictorial books, merchandise and general reference books for Lonely Planet Publications.
Her clients include trade publishers as well as not-for-profit organisations and individuals. Nikki moved from practising criminal law to editing legal, academic and trade books in She began freelance editing in , having previously worked in-house as an editor at UQP and a senior editor at Black Inc.
Kylie has been a freelance editor for eleven years and has also worked inhouse for HarperCollins and Pan Macmillan. I have formal qualifications from the Publishing Training Centre for both Copy Editing and Proofreading, as well as being trained on the job by some of the best publishers and editors in the business.
Before Penguin, I ran the editorial department of a self-publishing company, working with a range of authors on their projects, to make their writing the best it could possibly be, and guiding them through the process of becoming an author.
I also currently work with major romance publisher, Mills and Boon — my not so guilty pleasure.
She started a freelance book editing and assessment business in , and since then she has worked for several small publishers and directly with both new and experienced writers.
Screenplays: any genre. He has worked as commissioning editor at HarperCollins, associate publisher non-fiction at Hardie Grant, and Picador publisher at Pan Macmillan.
In he co-founded independent publisher Brio Books. He has extensive experience editing manuscripts in the following genres: memoir, biography, history, true crime, popular science and mathematics, current affairs, politics, sport and travel.
She is a founding member of the Society of Editors, WA. After ten years working in the public and private sectors, Christine started her own freelance editing business in Since then she has helped authors achieve commercial publication, assisted self-publishing writers, and worked with award-winning writers in developing their writing.
Christine offers a supportive, collaborative partnership to help authors bring their writing to the next level.
She provides advice on developmental issues such as story, plot and character, as well as polishing manuscripts in the line and copy-editing stages.
She also works directly with authors to assess, develop and edit manuscripts. On the larger, foliage-blanketed islands, from which outcrops of rocky mountains extended above the jungles, there was an ever-present, all-pervading scent of rotting vegetation that made breathing miserable.
Except for the sounds of exploding bombs and artillery shells, the stillness was so profound that an occasional harsh cry from a startled bird seemed to be sinister and awe-inspiring.
Keeping equipment in operating order was difficult at best. Drifting clouds that wreathed the treetops in swirling mists fed the dense canopy of dripping foliage far above the ever-saturated and almost sunless floor of the primeval jungle.
Even though the transmitters were set up under tents, they often experienced problems with short-circuiting caused by the moisture that constantly surrounded them.
Back-up units were not always available, which meant that often transmitters had to be "jury-rigged" in order to get anything out of them. The hot and humid air also warped the discs records containing the recorded programming.
On May 8, , word was received via radio from Delhi , announcing the end of hostilities in Europe. Coast watchers and scouts also listened to the AFRS stations for information about what was happening.
Coded messages were sometimes included in daily broadcasts to give them special information as well. As the Allies drew closer to Japan , the fighting turned into a desperate island-by-island, hill-by-hill, and even inch-by-inch struggle.
Command of the airwaves over areas changed hands as much as twice weekly, and in a few instances, twice daily. That made it even more difficult for those manning the AFRS radio stations, because, if they got too close to the battlefronts, aerial bombing could destroy the stations.
On more than one occasion the operators did not have time to transport their equipment away from contested areas, and had to abandon the stations where they were.
As the war front drew closer to Japan's four main islands, another AFRS outlet was established, on the island of Okinawa, in July The station's studio and transmitter were located Rizal Ave.
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Radio station in Olongapo. Call sign meaning.