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3kingdoms Navigation menu VideoThe History of Three Kingdoms (China) 189-280 AD: Every Year
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Liu Biao is the choice of those who wish to use wisdom, knowledge, and clarity of thought to bring peace back to this chaotic land.
Liu Bei is a modest, merciful, and loving warlord whose caring nature motivates powerful heroes to join his side and fight for his cause.
Ma Teng is a born survivor. Sun Jian is a skilled and daring warrior known for taking risks. He excels under pressure and is at his best when the deck is stacked against him.
A handsome and charismatic lord, Yuan Shao is a noble leader of men whose appeal to the common soldier cannot be underestimated.
Zhang Yan is an underdog and a man of opportunity, hovering between nobility and banditry and taking the path that best serves him.
Zheng Jiang is a law unto herself, a fierce warrior who wants nothing more than to see the Han dynasty fall — no matter what the cost.
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Total War: THREE KINGDOMS Unite China under your rule and forge the next great dynasty. Learn Buy Now. Sun Quan aged 18 succeeded him and quickly established his authority.
During Dong Zhuo's reign over the Han government, Liu Biao had been appointed as the Governor of Jing Province.
In , during the time of the campaign around Guandu between Cao Cao and Yuan Shao, Liu Bei's forces had been defeated by a detachment of Cao Cao's army, forcing Liu Bei to flee and seek refuge with Liu Biao in Jing Province.
In the autumn of , Liu Biao died and was succeeded by his youngest son Liu Cong over the eldest son Liu Qi through political maneuvering.
In , Cao Cao marched south with his army hoping to quickly unify the empire. Liu Biao 's son Liu Cong surrendered Jing Province and Cao was able to capture a sizable fleet at Jiangling.
Sun Quan , the successor to Sun Ce in the lower Yangtze , continued to resist. His advisor Lu Su secured an alliance with Liu Bei , himself a recent refugee from the north, and Zhou Yu was placed in command of Sun Quan's navy, along with a veteran general who served the Sun family, Cheng Pu.
Their combined armies of 50, met Cao Cao's fleet and ,strong force at Red Cliffs that winter. After an initial skirmish, an attack beginning with a plan to set fire to Cao Cao's fleet was set in motion to lead to the decisive defeat of Cao Cao, forcing him to retreat in disarray back to the north.
The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, and provided the basis for the states of Shu and Wu. In , Zhou Yu captured Jiangling, establishing the south's complete dominance over the Yangtze River.
In , Cao Cao defeated a warlord coalition in the Wei valley, ending in the Battle of Huayin, capturing the territory around Chang'an.
He became the Chancellor in , the Duke of Wei in , and the King of Wei in After Liu Bei had captured Yi Province from Liu Zhang in , Sun Quan—who had been engaged with Cao Cao in the southeast at the region between the Huai and Yangtze rivers during the intervening years—turned his attention to the middle Yangtze.
In the south, Sun Quan had sent He Qin, Lu Xun, and others to expand and conquer territory in what are now southern Zhejiang and Fujian provinces.
In , Liu Bei seized Hanzhong by defeating and killing General Xiahou Yuan, who served Cao Cao. While Lu Su had been chief commander for Sun Quan in Jing Province, their policy was to maintain the alliance with Liu Bei while Cao Cao was still a threat.
Cao Cao regained the Han valley, while Sun Quan captured all the territory east of the Yangtze Gorges. At the beginning of , Cao Cao died and was succeeded by his son Cao Pi.
At the end of , Shu invaded Wu in response for Guan Yu's killing and the loss of Jing Province by Wu. Shu controlled the upper Han valley and the territory west of the Yangtze Gorges.
In , Liu Shan rose to the throne of Shu following his father's defeat and death. From to , during his southward campaigns, Zhuge Liang conquered the southern territories up to Lake Dian in Yunnan.
In , Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong , and opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei. The next year, he ordered Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion while Zhuge himself led the main force to Mount Qi.
The vanguard Ma Su suffered a tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw. In the next six years Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but supply problems limited the capacity for success.
In , he led his last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains south of the Wei River. Due to the death of Zhuge Liang in , the Shu army was forced once again to withdraw, but were pursued by Wei.
The Shu forces began to withdraw; Sima Yi deduced Zhuge Liang's demise and ordered an attack. Shu struck back almost immediately, causing Sima Yi to second guess and allow Shu to withdraw successfully.
Sun Quan turned to the aborigines of the southeast, whom the Chinese collectively called the " Shanyue ". A collection of successes against the rebellious tribesmen culminated in the victory of In that year, Zhuge Ke ended a three-year siege of Danyang with the surrender of , Shanyue.
Of these, 40, were drafted as auxiliaries into the Wu army. Meanwhile, Shu was also experiencing troubles with the indigenous tribes of their south.
The southwestern Nanman peoples rose in revolt against Shu authority, captured and looted cities in Yi Province. Zhuge Liang, recognizing the importance of stability in the south, ordered the advance of the Shu armies in three columns against the Nanman.
He fought a number of engagements against the chieftain Meng Huo , at the end of which Meng Huo submitted. A tribesman was allowed to reside at the Shu capital Chengdu as an official and the Nanman formed their own battalions within the Shu army.
In the times of Zhuge Liang 's northern offensives, the state of Wu had always been on the defensive against invasions from the north.
The area around Hefei was the scene of many bitter battles and under constant pressure from Wei after the Battle of Red Cliffs. Warfare had grown so intense that many of the residents chose to migrate and resettle south of the Yangtze River.
After Zhuge Liang's death, attacks on the southern Huai River region intensified but nonetheless, Wei could not break through the line of the river defenses erected by Wu, which included the Ruxu fortress.
Sun Quan 's long reign is regarded as a time of plenty for his southern state. Migrations from the north and the settlement of the Shanyue increased manpower for agriculture, especially along the lower reaches of the Yangtze and in Kuaiji Commandery along the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay.
River transport blossomed, with the construction of the Zhedong and Jiangnan canals. Trade with Shu flourished, with a huge influx of Shu cotton and the development of celadon and metal industries.
Sea journeys were made to Liaodong and the island of Taiwan. In the south, Wu merchants reached Linyi Southern Vietnam and Funan Kingdom.
As the economy prospered, so too did the arts and culture. In the Yangtze delta, the first Buddhist influences reached the south from Luoyang.
The Eastern Wu era was a formative period in Vietnamese history. A Jiaozhou modern Vietnam and Guangzhou prefect, Shi Xie , ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese emperors.
Originally satisfied with Eastern Wu 's rule, the Vietnamese opposed Shi Hui 's rebellion against Eastern Wu and attacked him for it.
However, when the Wu general Lü Dai betrayed Shi Hui and executed the entire Shi family, the Vietnamese became greatly upset.
In , the people of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen commanderies rebelled. Eastern Wu sent Lu Yin to deal with the rebels. He managed to pacify the rebels with a combination of threats and persuasion.
After several months of warfare she was defeated and committed suicide. In , Cao Pi died aged 40 and was succeeded by his eldest son Cao Rui aged In , Sima Yi was dispatched to command a military campaign against Gongsun Yuan of the self-proclaimed Yan Kingdom in Liaodong, resulting in Sima Yi's capture of his capital Xiangping and massacre of his government.
Although the king evaded capture and eventually settled in a new capital, Goguryeo was reduced to such insignificance that for half a century there was no mention of the state in Chinese historical texts.
In , Cao Rui perished at age After Zhuge Liang 's death, his position as chancellor fell to Jiang Wan , Fei Yi and Dong Yun , in that order.
But after , Shu politics became increasingly controlled by the eunuch faction, led by Huang Hao , and corruption rose.
Despite the energetic efforts of Jiang Wei , Zhuge Liang's protege , Shu was unable to secure any decisive achievement. In , Wei launched a three-pronged attack and the Shu army was forced into general retreat from Hanzhong.
Jiang Wei hurriedly held a position at Jiange but he was outflanked by the Wei commander Deng Ai , who force-marched his army from Yinping through territory formerly considered impassable.
By the winter of the year, the capital Chengdu fell due to the strategic invasion of Wei by Deng Ai who invaded Chengdu personally. The emperor Liu Shan thus surrendered.
The state of Shu had come to an end after 43 years. Liu Shan was reinstated to the Wei capital of Luoyang and was given the new title of the "Duke of Anle".
Directly translated, it meant the "Duke of Safety and Happiness" and was a trivial position with no actual power.
From the late s, tensions began to become visible between the imperial Cao clan and the Sima clan. Following the death of Cao Zhen , factionalism was evident between Cao Shuang and the Grand Tutor Sima Yi.
In deliberations, Cao Shuang placed his own supporters in important posts and excluded Sima Yi, whom he regarded as a dangerous threat. The power of the Sima clan, one of the great landowning families of the Han dynasty, was bolstered by Sima Yi's military victories.
Additionally, Sima Yi was an extremely capable strategist and politician. In he crushed the rebellion of Gongsun Yuan 's self-proclaimed Yan Kingdom and brought the Liaodong region directly under central control.
Ultimately, he outmanoeuvred Cao Shuang in power play. Taking advantage of an excursion by the imperial clansmen to the Gaoping Tombs , Sima Yi undertook a putsch in Luoyang, forcing Cao Shuang's faction from authority.
Many protested against the overwhelming power of the Sima family; notable among these were the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.
One of the sages, Xi Kang , was executed as part of the purges after Cao Shuang's downfall. Cao Huan succeeded to the throne in after Cao Mao was killed in a failed coup against Sima Zhao.
Sima Yan immediately began plotting to become emperor but faced stiff opposition. Following advice from his advisors, Cao Huan decided the best course of action would be to abdicate, unlike his predecessor Cao Mao.
Sima Yan seized the throne in after forcing Cao Huan's abdication, effectively overthrowing the Wei dynasty and establishing the successor Jin dynasty.
This situation was similar to the deposal of Emperor Xian of Han by Cao Pi 40 years earlier. Following Sun Quan 's death and the ascension of the young Sun Liang to the throne in , the state of Wu went into steady decline.
Successful Wei suppression of rebellions in the southern Huai River region by Sima Zhao and Sima Shi reduced any opportunity of Wu influence.
The fall of Shu signalled a change in Wei politics. After Liu Shan surrendered to Wei, Sima Yan grandson of Sima Yi , overthrew the Wei emperor and proclaimed his own dynasty of Jin in , ending 46 years of Cao dominion in the north.
After Jin's rise, emperor Sun Xiu of Wu died, and his ministers gave the throne to Sun Hao. Sun Hao was a promising young man, but upon ascension he became a tyrant, killing or exiling all who dared oppose him in the court.
In Yang Hu , a Jin commander in the south, started preparing for the invasion of Wu by ordering the construction of a fleet and the training of marines in Sichuan under Wang Jun.
Four years later, Lu Kang , the last great general of Wu, died leaving no competent successor. The planned Jin offensive finally came at the end of Sima Yan launched five simultaneous offensives along the Yangtze River from Jianye present-day Nanjing to Jiangling while the Sichuan fleet sailed downriver to Jing Province.
Under the strain of such an enormous attack, the Wu forces collapsed and Jianye fell in the third month of Sun Hao surrendered and was given a fiefdom on which to live out his days.
This marked the end of the Three Kingdoms era, and the beginning of a break in the forthcoming years of disunity. After the Yellow Turban Rebellion , serious famine followed in the Central Plains of China.
After his coming to power, Dong Zhuo gave full swing to his army to loot and plunder the population, and abduct women into forced marriages, servants or consorts.
When the Guandong Coalition was starting the campaign against Dong Zhuo, he embarked upon a scorched earth campaign, proclaiming that "all the population of Luoyang be forced to move to Chang'an , all the palaces, temples, official residences and homes be burnt, no one should stay within that area of li ".
Considering the hardships of that time this amounted to a death sentence for many, and cries of discontent rose as the population of Luoyang decreased sharply.
When Cao Cao attacked Xu Province , it was said that "hundreds of thousands of men and women were buried alive, even dogs and chickens did not survive.
The Si River was blocked. From then on, these five towns never recovered. The following table shows the severe decrease of population during that period.
From the late Eastern Han to the Western Jin dynasty, despite the length of about years, the peak population only equaled From the Western Jin dynasty to the Sui dynasty , the population never recovered.
High militarization of the population was common. For example, the population of Shu was ,, but the military numbered over , The Records of the Three Kingdoms contains population figures for the Three Kingdoms.
As with many Chinese historical population figures, these numbers are likely to be less than the actual populations, since census and tax records went hand in hand, and tax evaders were often not on records.
During the Three Kingdoms period — AD , a number of statuses intermediate between freedom and slavery developed, but none of them are thought to have exceeded 1 percent of the population.
While it is clear that warfare undoubtedly took many lives during this period, the census figures do not support the idea that tens of millions were wiped out solely from warfare.สมัครสมาชิกและดาวน์โหลดได้แล้ววันนี้ แล้วพบกัน didgeridoo-digeridoo-yidaki.com!!. วันอังคาร วันเสาร์ พุธ สามก๊กออนไลน์ 3Kingdoms-TH 3kingdoms Online สามก๊กภาษาไทย. 3Kingdoms, always free to play and has been established for over 22 YEARS as one of the internet's premier online adventures! We offer phenomenal depth and a gameplay experience that only decades of continual development and innovation can provide. Confidently invest your gaming time like thousands of others have with a proven leader - 3Kingdoms. 3Kingdoms, abbreviated 3K, is a MUD, a text-based online role-playing game, founded in Game characteristics. A screenshot of one of the many different initial.