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Kuzbass Kemerovo The Autonomous Industrial Colony Kuzbass: Beginning Video\
Kuzbass benefited greatly from its propaganda in the United States. Popular newspapers wrote about Americans who intended to "build a more efficient industry in Kuzbass than the one built by the capitalists in the state of New Jersey.
The brochure was criticized for being too promotional: it embellished the real state of affairs in Siberia. In response, American mining engineer Alfred Pierson, who ran the Kemerovo Mine, wrote: "the brochure does not allow a modern American city dweller to imagine the grayness of a Siberian town with its log huts, so he will probably be disappointed by the reality, although I have seen many a miner town in America that would make Kemerovo look like the city of your dreams.
We invite only those workers who are ready to give all their energy and who are willing and able to bear the hardships of the first years".
The first issue of the Bulletin was sold out in a week, and soon its subscribers numbered thousands. The Bulletin covered Kuzbass plans, reports, and stories about the life of the colonists, their letters, poems, photographs, and applications for specialists.
The Kuzbass Bulletin became the most effective means of Kuzbass propaganda. Its materials appeared in other newspapers and magazines. Tom Barker said that they knew about Kuzbass more in America than in Russia.
The last issue of the Bulletin was published on December 1, Eventually they had to stop publishing because of financial difficulties; besides, the permanent staff of the Colony had already been shaped.
Since , people were recruited only to replace those colonists who had worked their time. The first group of colonists departed from New York to Kuzbass on April 8, , on the steamer Adriatic.
From to , several groups of colonists were sent from the USA to Kuzbass every year to replace those whose two-year contract had run out. There they were joined by colonists from European countries and went to Petrograd by smaller steamers.
A special train took them from there to Kemerovo. In addition to personal luggage, colonists carried food, materials, tools, equipment, and seeds.
Ruth Kennell, who came to Kuzbass with the 4 th group, wrote to Calvert's wife Mellie July 11, , 4th group : "Dear Mellie, in the evening our train left Petrograd in stormy weather We call our train Maxim Gorky.
You know that this writer traveled a lot around the country. There are 19 freight wagons in our train, some of them have sleeping plank-beds, and others carry food and stuff.
There is no light, we use candles. We have to boil our water, we drink only coffee. We have a laundry car with basins where we can wash our stuff with soap and hot water.
We cook food in a special kitchen wagon. At first the oven smoked as if there was a big fire, and we all felt very sorry for the cooks, who were constantly in tears.
We hope that next year there will be special kitchen cars for cooking. Several groups travelled by another route: from San Francisco across the Pacific to Japan, then to Vladivostok, and from there by train to Kemerovo.
The colonists wrote in their memoirs that the steamer Rotterdam gave a long low whistle when leaving the New York harbor.
And when they heard the whistle of the Kemerovo coke plant, they were struck by the similarity of its tone with the whistle of the Rotterdam.
Two groups of colonists included a film crew who filmed their entire journey to Kemerovo and then made a film that was shown in Moscow and New York.
The first party of the colonists arrived in Kemerovo on May 25, In addition to personal luggage and tools, the colonists brought 38 tons of food, materials, equipment, a Fordson tractor, a plow, a disc cultivator, gardening tools, and seeds.
Due to poor organization, the first colonists had nowhere to live: had to spend a week in their train carriages, and only then they were accommodated in two school buildings and in big army tents.
Bill Haywood came to Kemerovo July 9, , upon learning about the hardships the colonists had to endure. He had to fulfill the functions of the director because Rutgers had not arrived yet.
Unfortunately, Heywood was guided by the main IWW principles, i. Hence the working hours were established by voting on a daily basis, everything was subject to public discussion, even technical issues; besides, he gave people their salary out-of-pocket in equal shares.
Rutgers arrived in Kemerovo on August 1, , and immediately realized that Kuzbass was on the brink of failure because nothing at all had been done. To save the Colony, Rutgers followed his substantial administrative experience: he established a seniority system, stopped the practice of public voting, and introduced trade unions.
Eventually, he had to substitute equal pay with the Soviet category tariff scale in accordance with the New Economic Policy, which stirred up a great discontent among the IWW members.
And then divide into 17 categories! Rutgers actually became the sole manager of Kuzbass and had the absolute right to resolve all issues.
The IWW members called him a dictator. They saw Kuzbass as an experiment to confirm their social utopia: a working colony run by the workers themselves, while Rutgers intended to create an effective industrial enterprise.
Rutgers fired everyone who could not come to terms with his policy, but paid for their journey to Russian border and issued them a monthly ration.
Heywood understood the utopian character of his dream and left Kuzbass in January The colonists wanted turn Kuzbass into a New Pennsylvania, which was the main coal mining region of the United States at that time, by applying the newest American methods and equipment.
In , the Council of Labor and Defense allowed Kuzbass to make independent purchases abroad. Commissar of Foreign Affairs L. Krasin was personally charged with the duty to facilitate the immediate implementation of all Kuzbass orders.
The New York Office sent out requests for mining, electrical, construction and agricultural equipment. He believed that qualified specialists are to direct the production process directly on site, and not by issuing orders from the office.
Pierson reorganized the mining works. Previously, miners worked around the clock in four 6-hour shifts. Pierson introduced three shifts with two-hour intervals to ventilate the mine after explosions, which allowed him to speed up the process.
Kemerovo mines were technically upgraded: jackhammers and headers were introduced for the first time. Gasoline miner lamps gave way to electric lamps brought from America.
They bought a steam hammer, and Hungarian master Lempek trained young Russian smiths. As a result, very soon they provided Kemerovo mines and the whole region with axe picks.
During the existence of the Colony the total volume of coal mining in Kuzbass increased 8. In , the Central mine produced 1, tons per month, and by the end of it was 1, tons per day.
Earnings of qualified clearers allowed them to have a cow, while an experienced clearer could afford 2 or 3 cows and a horse.
The most significant achievement of the Colony was the launch of the first in Siberia coking by-product plant. The initial coke plant had been set up by Kopikuz before the revolution.
The plant was supposed to provide coke for metallurgical plants in the Urals. It was the first time that a plant like that had been built in such harsh climatic conditions.
A team of Kuzbass specialists led by Dr. They visited chemical plants and smelters, purchased hoisting cranes, coke discharging installations and other necessary equipment.
They managed to recruit some German chemical engineers and coke masters from the Ruhr Coal Basin. The new coke plant boasted a well-equipped chemical laboratory.
The coking plant was officially opened on March 2, ; it was 20 degrees Celsius below zero; an orchestra was playing The Internationale.
The event was attended by 1, Kuzbass employees, city residents and guests from Moscow, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, and Yekaterinburg.
A representative of the Council of Labor and Defense addressed the people: "Workers, technicians and engineers of Kemerovo! Entire Soviet Russia celebrates with you today!
You have built a large enterprise in Siberia, which will give coking coal to the factories of the Urals. My greetings, and thank you all. Long live the little international of Siberia!
American engineers, who participated in the construction of the plant, published an article in the American journal Chemistry and Metallurgy about the event in Kemerovo.
William Mahler wrote about it in the Kuzbass Bulletin. Kuzbass chemical products were purchased by major Russian enterprises Aniltrest, Severokhim, Moskvotol, Leningradago, etc.
By launching the coking plant, the Colony proved itself as a successfully operating enterprise, not some abstract ideological experiment.
The factories and mines run by the Colony were much more profitable than other enterprises in the region. By the end of , the AIC Kuzbass reached 1 million gold rubles of net profit.
In January , the Colony built a power plant with the capacity of 60, kW on the territory of the coking plant. By November , 14 transformer substations, 48 electric motors, 18 steam boilers of various systems and 12 steam pumps operated at the Kemerovo mine.
That was how the Colony contributed to in the electrification plan of Russia, which included the Ust-Iskitim power station in Kemerovo. The Colony electrified the nearest villages as well.
The purpose of this plan was to replace the horse drives used on threshers, windmills, and mills. All in all, Kuzbass electricians managed to electrify five villages.
The power plant constructed by the Colony became the only electricity supplier to the town of Shcheglovsk. The town bought electricity at a price of 5 kopecks per kW and sold it to industrial consumers at 12 and 25 kopecks.
The coking plant served as a source for lighting for the streets of Shcheglovsk. The telephone department operated two telephone stations: one for telephone units at the Kemerovo Mine and the other — for units at the chemical plant.
Foreign workers were used to cinema, radio, telephone, and Sunday newspapers, but in Kemerovo they received central Russian newspapers 3 — 4 weeks too late.
Therefore, the Kuzbass Board did everything to install a radio station in Kemerovo. The Colony had its own shoemaking and tailoring shops that made working clothes and boots for workers of coke ovens, leather gloves, aprons, etc.
The workshop had 6 mechanical machines and a cutaway electric knife, which made it possible to cut out several patterns at the same time.
The workshop could produce tarpaulin costumes per month, or twice as many in two shifts. The workshops also served local residents.
The main means of transportation in Kuzbass was by cart. In early spring and late autumn local roads were drowned in mud.
The Colony had to purchase a snow tractor for the off-road conditions in the south of Kuzbass. Its engine was taken from a Fordson tractor.
It was one of the world's first all-terrain vehicles produced by Armstead Snow Motors Company in Michigan in the s. The transport department had several freight and passenger Ford vehicles.
That created huge difficulties since there was no bridge. Those who were trying to cross it by boat had to pull the boat upstream along the cable for about a quarter of a mile along the bank; after that, four of them would row like mad while the strong current carried them downstream the same distance, to moor to the stairs on the opposite shore that led up the cliff In , Mariinsk was founded.
Industrial development of this land started at the end of the 18th century. During the 19th century, the territory of the Kemerovo region was part of the Tomsk province.
During this period, the first industrial enterprises appeared here: Tomsk ironworks, Gavrilovsky and Gurievsky silver plants, Suharinsky and Salairsky mines.
Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was one of the main reasons for the rapid development of the local industry. More historical facts….
In Soviet times, the region became part of the West Siberian krai, and then - Novosibirsk oblast.
The development of the coal, metallurgical and chemical industries continued: Kemerovo Coke Plant, Kuznetsk Metallurgical Plant, a lot of new mines.
During the Second World War, this region was a major supplier of coal and metal. More than 50 thousand tanks and 45 thousand aircraft were produced using steel from Novokuznetsk.
In , Kemerovo oblast became a separate region that included After the war, the region continued to grow rapidly. September 18, , about km from Kemerovo, a peaceful underground nuclear explosion was carried out, the power of the explosive device was 10 kilotons.
However, by the end of the 20th century, there were some positive developments - the development of the coal industry in the first place.
Alexander Markin. Ivan Demakov. Mikhail Shcherbakov. Inal Tavasiev. Alexey Obmochaev. Vladimir Shishkin. Staff members. Alexey Verbov.
Head coach. Konstantin Sidenko. Coach assistant. Add roster photo. Victor Poletaev. Yaroslav Podlesnykh. Dmitry Kostrov. Dmytro Pashytskyy.
Lauri Kerminen. Nikita Lyasov. Francesco Oleni. Ivan Lukyanenko. Vitaliy Vasiliev. Semyon Dmitriev. Sergei Nikitin. Alexander Moiseev.
Tuomas Sammelvuo. President of the Russian Federation. Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 23, June 3, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved January 29, Kemerovo Oblast.
Retrieved July 20, Dictionary of Minor Planet Names 5th ed. New York: Springer Verlag. Retrieved on Sreda, Subdivisions of Russia. Federal subjects.
Moscow Saint Petersburg Sevastopol 1. Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions. Administrative divisions of Kemerovo Oblast.
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